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Ever since the emergence of industrial relations as a field in the late 1920s, three different approaches to labour problems have been focal points for research and debate, according to Bruce E. Kaufman. What he refers to as ""employers' solutions"" involve personnel management; workers rely on unionism and collective bargaining; and the third component, the community, depends on government regulation in the form of protective labour legislation and social insurance programmes. Kaufman contends that government regulation has contributed significantly to the remarkable progress made during the 20th century in achieving a more productive and humane workplace. As labour problems have changed, debate about the efficacy of government regulation has continued. In this volume scholars in industrial relations frame the current issues, develop theoretical insights and provide an objective review of the empirical evidence.