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The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty has brought about a proliferation of "integration principles". In addition to the environmental integration principle, which has been part of the EU legal framework for some time, the Lisbon Treaty introduced the principles of gender equality integration, social policy integration, non-discrimination integration, consumer protection integration as well as animal welfare integration. Furthermore, a general principle of integration policy objectives is contained in Article 7 TFEU, requiring that the Union must ensure consistency between its policies and activities, taking all relevant policy requirements listed under the TFEU into account in the adoption of any legislative measure. These integration principles must be pursued, or at least taken into account, when decisions are being taken in almost any area of EU policy-making. However, there is considerable uncertainty regarding the normative implications of the various integration principles as well as their legal value and practical relevance for EU policymaking.
This book addresses the implications of the proliferation of sectorial integration principles and the introduction of a universal requirement of policy consistency in terms of the division of competences between the Union and the Member States as well as the scope for judicial review of the EU legislative process. In particular, it explores whether the introduction of various integration principles has led to an extension of Union competences and whether it has limited the scope for judicial review by extending the discretionary power of the Union institutions.