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Vol 21 No 9 Sept/Oct 2016

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Goode on Commercial Law

Edited by: Ewan McKendrick
Price: £170.00

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Enforcement of Environmental Law

Edited by: Ludwig Kramer

ISBN13: 9781783479931
Published: September 2016
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited
Country of Publication: UK
Format: Hardback
Price: £275.00

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It is becoming ever more apparent that the enforcement of environmental law is a key problem of environmental law and policy. While the number of legal instruments at international, European and national level continue to increase, the actual enforcement of the relevant law remains insufficient, seriously impairing the effectiveness of environmental law.

Based on the assumption that nothing undermines the credibility of public authorities more than law that is not applied, this research collection assembles the most important articles on the enforcement of international, EU and national environmental law that approach the issue from multiple angles and endeavour to provide solutions for improvement. With an original introduction by the editor, it provides acute insight into existing concerns and intends to stimulate discussion on possible ways to reform and bolster environmental law enforcement.

Environmental Law
Introduction Ludwig Krämer

1. Cheryl E. Wasserman (1990), ‘An Overview of Compliance and Enforcement in the United States: Philosophy, Strategies and Management Tools’, International Enforcement Workshop, May 8–10, 1990: Proceedings, Chapter I, Volume I, Utrecht, the Netherlands: Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment, and Washington, DC, USA: United States Environmental Protection Agency, 7–45
2. Gertrude Lübbe-Wolff (2001), ‘Efficient Environmental Legislation - On Different Philosophies of Pollution Control in Europe’, Journal of Environmental Law, 13 (1), 79–87
3. Richard Macrory (2013), ‘Sanctions and Safeguards: The Brave New World of Regulatory Enforcement’, Current Legal Problems, 66 (1), 233–66
4. Marcia E. Mulkey (2004), ‘Judges and Other Lawmakers: Critical Contributions to Environmental Law Enforcement’, Sustainable Development Law and Policy, IV (1), Spring, 2–16
5. Lesley K. McAllister, Benjamin van Rooij and Robert A. Kagan (2010), ‘Reorienting Regulation: Pollution Enforcement in Industrializing Countries’, Law and Policy, 32 (1), January, 1–13

6. David M. Konisky (2007), ‘Regulatory Competition and Environmental Enforcement: Is There a Race to the Bottom?’, American Journal of Political Science, 51 (4), October, 853–72
7. Reiner-Jörg Hüper (2004), ‘Application of Criminal Environmental Law in Germany’, in Françoise Comte and Ludwig Krämer (eds), Environmental Crime in Europe: Rules of Sanctions, Chapter 14, Groningen, Germany: Europa Law Publishing, 149, 151–58
8. K.J. de Graaf and J.H. Jans (2007), ‘Colloquium Article: Liability of Public Authorities in Cases of Non-Enforcement of Environmental Standards’, Pace Environmental Law Review, 24 (2), Summer, 377–98
9. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2011), ‘EPA Must Improve Oversight of State Enforcement’, Report No.
12-P-0113, December 9, 2011, Chapter 2, Washington, DC, USA: United States Environmental Protection Agency, 6–24
10. Eugene Mazur (2011), ‘Environmental Enforcement in Decentralised Governance Systems: Toward a Nationwide Level Playing Field’, OECD Environment Working Papers No.34, Paris, France: OECD Publishing, i, 9–40

11. Jutta Brunnée (2005), ‘Enforcement Mechanisms in International Law and International Environmental Law’, elni Review, 1, 1–12
12. Michael Bothe (1996), ‘The Evaluation of Enforcement Mechanisms in International Environmental Law: An Overview’, in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed.), Enforcing Environmental Standards: Economic Mechanisms as Viable Means?, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 13–38
13. Winfried Lang (1996), ‘Trade Restrictions as a Means of Enforcing Compliance with International Environmental Law: Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer’, in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed.), Enforcing Environmental Standards: Economic Mechanisms as Viable Means?, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 265–83
14. Alexandra González-Calatayud and Gabrielle Marceau (2002), ‘The Relationship between the Dispute-Settlement Mechanisms of MEAs and those of the WTO’, Review of European Community and International Environmental Law, 11 (3), November, 275–86
15. Gebhard Kirchgässner and Ernst Mohr (1996), ‘Trade Restrictions as Viable Means of Enforcing Compliance with International Environmental Law: An Economic Assessment’, in Rüdiger Wolfrum (ed.), Enforcing Environmental Standards: Economic Mechanisms as Viable Means?, Berlin and Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 199–226
16. Veit Koester (2007), ‘The Compliance Committee of the Aarhus Convention: An Overview of Procedures and Jurisprudence’, Environmental Policy and Law, 37 (2–3), 83–96
17. Jonas Ebbesson (2007), ‘Implementing and Enforcing the Baltic Sea Convention Through European Community Law’, in Martin Führ, Rainer Wahl and Peter von Wilmowsky (eds), Umweltrecht und Umweltwissenschaft: Festschrift für Eckard Rehbinder, Berlin, Germany: Erich Schmidt Verlag, 693–704
18. Peter H. Sand (2013), ‘Enforcing CITES: The Rise and Fall of Trade Sanctions’, Review of European Community and International Environmental Law, 22 (3), November, 251–63

19. Koen Lenaerts and José A. Gutiérrez-Fons (2011), ‘The General System of EU Environmental Law Enforcement’, Yearbook of European Law, 30 (1), 3–41
20. Ken Collins and David Earnshaw (1992), ‘The Implementation and Enforcement of European Community Environment Legislation’, Environmental Politics, Special Issue: A Green Dimension for the European Community: Political Issues and Processes, 1 (4), November, 213–49
21. Liam Cashman (2006), ‘Commission Compliance Promotion and Enforcement in the Field of the Environment’, Journal for European Environmental and Planning Law, 3 (5), 385–94
22. Brian Jack (2011), ‘Enforcing Member State Compliance with EU Environmental Law: A Critical Evaluation of the Use of Financial Penalties’, Journal of Environmental Law, 23 (1), March, 73–95
23. Martin Hedemann-Robinson (2012), ‘EU Enforcement of International Environmental Agreements: The Role of the European Commission’, European Energy and Environmental Law Review, 21 (1), February, 2–30
24. Suzanne Kingston (2013), ‘Mind the Gap: Difficulties in Enforcement and the Continuing Unfulfilled Promise of EU Environmental Law’, in European Perspectives on Environmental Law and Governance, Chapter 7, Abingdon, UK and New York, NY, USA: Routledge, 147–76

25. Jan Darpö (2013), ‘Effective Justice? Synthesis Report of the Study on the Implementation of Articles 9(3) and 9(4) of the Aarhus Convention in Seventeen of the Member States of the European Union’, in Jan H. Jans, Richard Macrory and Angel-Manuel Moreno Molina (eds), National Courts and EU Environmental Law, Chapter 8, Groningen, the Netherlands: Europa Law Publishing, 167, 169–212
26. Jan H. Jans and Albert T. Marseille (2010), ‘The Role of NGOs in Environmental Litigation against Public Authorities: Some Observations on Judicial Review and Access to Court in the Netherlands’, Journal of Environmental Law, 22 (3), 373–90
27. Jennifer Cassel (2007), ‘Enforcing Environmental Human Rights: Selected Strategies of US NGOs’, Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights, 6 (1), Fall, 104–27
28. Ludwig Krämer (2014), ‘EU Enforcement of Environmental Laws: From Great Principles to Daily Practice – Improving Citizen Involvement’, Environmental Policy and Law, 44 (1–2), 247–56
29. Christian Schall (2008), ‘Public Interest Litigation Concerning Environmental Matters before Human Rights Courts: A Promising Future Concept?’, Journal of Environmental Law, 20 (3), 417–53

30. Joel A. Mintz (2013), ‘Assessing National Environmental Enforcement: Some Lessons from the United States' Experience’, Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, 26 (1), Fall, 1–12
31. Christopher N. Behre (2003), ‘Mexican Environmental Law: Enforcement and Public Participation Since the Signing of NAFTA’s Environmental Cooperation Agreement’, Journal of Transnational Law and Policy, 12 (2), Spring, 327–43
32. Carlos Wing-Hung Lo, Gerald E. Fryxell, Benjamin van Rooij, Wei Wang and Pansy Honying Li (2012), ‘Explaining the Enforcement Gap in China: Local Government Support and Internal Agency Obstacles as Predictors of Enforcement Actions in Guangzhou’, Journal of Environmental Management, 111, November, 227–35
33. Benjamin van Rooij and Carlos Wing-Hung Lo (2010), ‘Fragile Convergence: Understanding Variation in the Enforcement of China's Industrial Pollution Law’, Law and Policy, 32 (1), January, 14–37
34. Liam Cashman (2013), ‘Commission Enforcement of EU Environmental Legislation in Ireland: A 20-Year Retrospective’, in Suzanne Kingston (ed.), European Perspectives on Environmental Law and Governance, Chapter 8, Abingdon, UK and New York, NY, USA: Routledge, 177–96
35. Michael G. Faure and Katarina Svatikova (2010), ‘Enforcement of Environmental Law in the Flemish Region’, European Energy and Environmental Law Review, 19 (2), April, 60–79

36. Victor B. Flatt and Paul M. Collins Jr. (2011), ‘Environmental Enforcement in Dire Straits: There Is No Protection for Nothing and No Data for Free’, Environmental Law Reporter, 41 (8), 10679–85
37. Michael Bothe (2006), ‘Ensuring Compliance with Multilateral Environmental Agreements – Systems Of Inspection and External Monitoring’, in Ulrich Beyerlin, Peter-Tobias Stoll and Rüdiger Wolfrum (eds), Ensuring Compliance with Multilateral Environmental Agreements: A Dialogue Between Practitioners and Academia, Leiden, the Netherlands and Boston, MA: Koninklijke Brill NV, 247–58
38. Wayne B. Gray and Jay P. Shimshack (2011), ‘The Effectiveness of Environmental Monitoring and Enforcement: A Review of the Empirical Evidence’, Review of Environmental Economics and Policy, 5 (1), Winter, 3–24
39. Marjan Peeters (2006), ‘Enforcement of EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme’, in Marjan Peeters and Kurt Deketelaere (eds), EU Climate Change Policy: The Challenge of New Regulatory Initiatives, Chapter 9, Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd, 169–87
40. Michael Watson (2006), ‘The Use of Criminal and Civil Penalties to Protect the Environment: A Comparative Study’, European Environmental Law Review, 15 (4), April, 108–13