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Concern about the disappearance of wild species led, in 1973, to the signing of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora which responded with a series of bans and regulations. However, CITES failed to halt the decline of wild species and it became clear that the actual causes of extinction were ill understood. It was criticized for being fundamentally misconceived and its policies on restricting trade damned as a positive threat to wildlife by reducing human incentives to conserve either species or their habitats.;This volume draws on the experience and expertise of those central to the development of CITES. With contributors from Southern Africa, Asia the EU and the US, an important aim of the book is to examine the North-South conflict arising from the differing perceptions of the relationship between conservation and development in these regions. The collected essays examine the record of CITES, its controversies, successes and future direction. It should serve as a source of reference and theory for policy-makers and practitioners involved in conservation, animal rights and welfare; for academics and students concerned with international trade and international law; and for all those involved with the environment, development and sustainability.