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States get involved in international affairs either directly or through their instrumentalities. The activities of these instrumentalities raise many issues, two of which have given rise to significant recent developments both in arbitral and domestic case law.
The first is whether and under what conditions a State may be held liable for the conduct of such instrumentalities on the basis of an investment treaty. This issue will be the subject of a systematic survey of ICSID and ICC case law and that of other arbitral tribunals so as to identify the circumstances in which such liability may arise.
The second issue, which is addressed by State courts, is whether and under what conditions State instrumentalities that have a separate and autonomous legal personality may be held liable for the pecuniary obligations of the State. A comparative law study focusing in particular on solutions found in French, English and U.S. law will provide answers to the question as to whether an award holding a State liable may be enforced against the assets of instrumentalities of that State, where such instrumentalities are prima facie separate juridical persons.