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The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination was adopted on 21 December 1965, by the General Assembly of the United Nations, and entered into force on 4 January 1969. It was the first of the universal human rights treaties with a treaty-monitoring body to be adopted and enter into force. At present, 156 States have ratified or acceded to this Convention. Under article 9 of the Convention, each State party has to submit a report within one year after the entry into force of the Convention for that State and thereafter every two years and whenever so requested. The Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination has been formed to monitor the implementation of the Convention. At its 40th session, in 1991, the Committee initiated the practice of adopting concluding observations by the Committee as a whole on each report it considered, and at its forty-third session, in 1993, the Committee started to use a standard format for the presentation of its concluding observations.;The Committee makes a general evaluation of the report and of the dialogue with the delegation, and it makes note of positive developments that may have occurred during the period under review, of factors and difficulties impeding the implementation of the Convention, and of principal subjects of concern. It also makes suggestions and recommendations to the State party concerned.