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Elgar Encyclopedia of International Economic Law

Edited by: Thomas Cottier, Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer

ISBN13: 9781784713539
Published: November 2017
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited
Country of Publication: UK
Format: Hardback
Price: £225.00

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The Encyclopedia is the definitive reference work on international economic law. The comprehensive resource helps redefine the field by presenting international economic law in its broadest, real-world context. Organized thematically rather than alphabetically, the subject is split into four principal sections: the foundations and architecture of IEL, the principles of IEL, the main regulatory areas, and the future challenges facing IEL. Comprising over 250 entries written by leading scholars and practitioners, traditional IEL subject matter is supplemented by coverage of newly developing areas. Thus, the concepts and rules of trade, investment, finance and international tax law are found alongside entries discussing the relationship of international economic law with environmental protection, social standards, development, and human rights. The concise entries present an accessible and condensed overview of each topic within its legal context. Contributors offer insight into how institutions interact with each other and other legal systems, in addition to providing individual overviews of their history, structure, principles and procedures. Selected readings follow each entry, giving a platform for further detailed exploration of the topic. This Encyclopedia is an invaluable resource for both practitioners and academics. It acts as a handy reference to all areas of international economic law, and provides the ideal starting point for any research journey. Key features:

  • Valuable reference tool for scholars, students and practitioners
  • Organised thematically, covering newly developing areas of IEL
  • Concise, structured entries from the top experts in the field
  • Selected references for further study

Law and Economics
PART I: Foundations and Architecture
1.1 Subject Matter of International Economic Law
Jeffrey L Dunoff
1.2 Relationship of International Economic Law to other Areas of Public International Law
Pierre-Marie Dupuy
1.3 Relationship of International Economic Law to Private International Law
Jorun Baumgartner
1.4Relationship of International Economic Law to Domestic Law
Christian Tietje
B. Foundational Concepts
1.5  Rule of Law in International Economic Relations
Andrew Lang
1.6 Harnessing Globalization and Enhancing Welfare
Jumoke Oduwole
1.7 Combating Protectionism and State Failures
Todd Weiler
1.8 Maintaining Sovereignty and Policy Space
Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer
1.9 Fostering Development
Frank J Garcia
C. Historical Perspective
1.10 Mercantilism
Craig VanGrasstek
I.11 Sovereignty
Craig VanGrasstek
1.12 Bilateralism in International Economic Law
Meredith Kolsky Lewis
1.13 Multilateralism in International Economic Law
Meredith Kolsky Lewis
1.14 Plurilateralism in International Economic Law
Meredith Kolsky Lewis
1.15 Towards Mega-Regionalism in International Economic Law
Peter-Tobias Stoll
1.16 Globalization and Multi-Level Governance
Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann
D. Sources of Law
1.17 General Principles of Law in International Economic Law
Georges Abi-Saab
1.18 Customary International Law in International Economic Law
Patrick Dumberry
1.19 Role of Courts in International Economic Law
Eric de Brabandere
1.20 Treaties and Treaty Interpretation in International Economic Law
Isabelle Van Damme
1.21 Soft Law in International Economic Law
Chris Brummer
1.22 Networking and Informal Cooperation in International Economic Law
Jan Wouters
1.23 Role of Empirical Research in International Economic Law
Anne Van Aaken
E. Regulatory Approaches
1.24 The Shift to Non-tariff Barriers and Product Regulation
Thomas Cottier and Jonas Baumann
1.25 Minimum StandardsThomas Cottier and Jonas Baumann
1.26 Harmonization
Thomas Cottier and Brigitta Imeli
1.27 Equivalence and Mutual Recognition
Thomas Cottier and Brigitta Imeli
1.28 Regulatory Cooperation and Concertation – the Example of TTIP Negotiations
Thomas Cottier
Part I Section II: Architecture
1.29 Leadership and Policy Making in International Economic Law
Diane A Desierto
1.30 The Legal Relationship of International Organizations
Marina Foltea
A. General, Trade and Investment Related Institutions
1.31 World Trade Organization (WTO)
Gabrielle Marceau
1.32 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
Kendra Magraw
1.33 International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)
Stanimir A Alexandrov
1.34 Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency(MIGA)
Julian M Powell
1.35 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
David Gaukrodger
1.36 Group of Twenty (G-20)
Peter I Hajnal
B. Monetary Institutions
1.37 International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Ben Thirkell-White
1.38 Central Banks
Gavin Bingham
1.39 Bank of International Settlements (BIS)
Pierre Panchaud
1.40 International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS)
Johnny Chang Kuan-Chun
1.41 International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO)
Christoph B Bühler
1.42 Financial Action Task Force (FATF)
Riccardo Sansonetti
1.43 Financial Stability Board (FSB)
Eva Hüpkes
1.44 Group of Seven (G-7)/ Group of Eight (G-8)
Peter I Hajnal
1.45 Business Twenty (B-20)
Kathrin Betz
C. International Tax Institutions
1.46 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Tax Policy Networks
Allison Christians889
1.47 UN Tax Committee
Allison Christians
1.48 EU Taxation and Customs Union Directorate-General
Allison Christians
1.49 Group of 20 (Role in Tax)
Allison Christians
1.50 International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) Commission on Taxation
Allison Christians
1.51 International Fiscal Association (IFA)
Allison Christians
D. Development Institutions
1.52 World Bank Group (WBG)
Mark S Ellis
1.53 Regional Development Banks (IDB)
Suresh Nanwani
1.54 International Trade Center (ITC)
Stephen Browne
1.55 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer
E. Intellectual Property Institutions
1.56World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
Holger Hestermeyer
1.57 The European Patent Organization (EPO)
Felix Addor
F. Energy Institutions
1.58 Energy Charter Treaty (ECT)
Kaj Hobér
1.59 International Energy Agency (IEA)
Yulia Selivanova
G. Standard-Setting Organizations
1.60 International Standards Organization (ISO)
Olia Kanevskaia
1.61 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
Olia Kanevskaia
1.62 International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
Olia Kanevskaia
H. Institutions Related to International Economic Law
1.63 International Labour Organization (ILO)
François Maupain and Marialaura Fino
1.64Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States (FAO)
Xuan Li
1.65 World Health Organization (WHO)
Benn D McGrady
1.66 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Julian M Powell
1.67 International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
Stephan Hobe
Part II Section I – Non-Discrimination in Trade of Goods and Services
A. Most-Favoured Nation Treatment (MFN)
2.1 The Principle of Most Favoured Nation Treatment
Armand de Mestral
2.2 Unconditional MFN
William J Davey
2.3 Conditional MFN
William J Davey
2.4 Regional Integration and Preferential Trade
Thomas Cottier and Lothar Ehring
2.5 Special and differential Treatment
Charlotte Sieber-Gasser
2.6 Enabling Clause
Christian Häberli
2.7 Graduation
Arthur E Appleton
2.8 Implied Departures from MFN and Differential Treatment
Thomas Cottier
B. National Treatment
2.9 Different Functions in Goods and Services
Nicolas F Diebold
2.10 Comparability in International Economic Law
Nicolas F Diebold
2.11 Comparability in IEL: Goods
Kateryna Holzer
2.12 Comparability in IEL: Services
Nicolas F Diebold
2.13 Process and Production Methods (PPMs)
Kateryna Holzer
2.14 Less Favourable Treatment
Lothar Ehring
2.15 Standard of Review
Petros C Mavroidis
Part II Section II Non-Discrimination on Foreign Direct Investment
2.16 Most-Favoured Nation Treatment in Investment Law
Piero Bernardini
2.17 National Treatment in Investment Law
Andrea K Bjorklund
Part II Section III – Minimum Standards in Investment Law
2.18 Non-Arbitrariness
Federico Ortino
2.19 Fair and Equitable Treatment (FET)
Martins Paparinskis
2.20 Full Protection and Security
J Anthony VanDuzer
Part II Section IV – Transparency and Good Governance
A. Transparency
2.21 State Transparency
Stephan W Schill and Felix Boos
2.22 Transparency in International Institutions
Luis Miguel Hinojosa Martínez
2.23 Transparency in Dispute Settlement
Maxi C Scherer and Dimitrij Euler
B. Good Governance
2.24 Democracy and Minority Rights
Philippe Coppens
Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer
Part II Section V Protecting Domestic Policy Space
2.26 Balancing a Diversity of Interests
Jonathan Gass
2.27 Implementing Domestic Law
Amelia Porges
A. Recognised Policies Protecting Domestic Policy Space
2.28 Public Morals
Robert Howse
2.29 Environmental Protection
Lorenzo Cotula
2.30 Public Health
Lawrence O Gostin
2.31 Culture
Valentina Vadi
2.32 Human Rights
Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer
2.33 Labour Protection
Drusilla Brown
2.34 Financial Stability
Nina Reiser
2.35National Security
Henri Culot
2.36 Development
Celine Tan
B. Specific Exemptions in Trade Law Protecting Domestic Policy Space
2.37Article XX GATT, Art XIV GATS
Peter Van den Bossche
2.38 Safeguards
Yong-Shik Lee
2.39 Waivers
Isabel Feichtner
2.40 Derogations and Exceptions in Other WTO Instruments
Marie Wilke
E. Specific Exceptions in Investment Law protecting Domestic Policy Space
2.41 Specific Exceptions in Investment Law protecting Policy Space
Jarrod Hepburn
Part II Section VI Adjudication and Enforcement
A. The Role of the Domestic Courts
2.42 Direct Effect of International Agreements
Matthias Oesch
2.43 Fork-in-the-Road Provisions
August Reinisch
B. Basic Principles of International Dispute Settlement
2.44 Pacta Sunt Servanda
Freya Baetens
2.45 State Responsibility
Freya Baetens
2.46 Choice of International Forum
Rodrigo Polanco
C. International Court of Justice
2.47 International Court of Justice
Robert Kolb
D. WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding
2.48 DSU: Jurisdiction and Procedures
Daniel C Crosby
2.49 DSU: Appeals
Daniel C Crosby
2.50 DSU: Implementation Stage Procedures
Valerie Hughes
2.51 DSU: RemediesValerie Hughes
E. Investment Arbitration Fora
2.52 Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA)
Brooks W Daly and Judith Levine
2.53 ICC International Court of Arbitration
Galina Zukova
2.54 Arbitration Institute of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce (SCC)
Joel Dahlquist Cullborg
2.55 London Court of International Arbitration (LCIA)
Baiju S Vasani
2.56 Ad hoc Investment Arbitration
Ucheora Onwuamaegbu
F. Procedural Aspects
2.57Jurisdiction in International Arbitration
Jan Paulsson
2.58 Admissibility in International Arbitration
Veijo Heiskanen
2.59 Working Procedures in International Arbitration
Jonathan Gass
2.60 Implementation and Enforcement in International Arbitration
Stephan Wilske and Chloë Edworthy
2.61 International Arbitrator Ethics
Catherine A Rogers
G. Resistance to Arbitration
2.62 Resistance to Arbitration
Lise Johnson
H. Other Forms of Enforcement
2.63 Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TRPM)
Mathias Kende
2.64 Investor-State Conflict Management
Roberto Echandi and Mariana Hernandez Crespo Gonstead
Part II Section VII Economic Sanctions
2.65 UN Security Council Resolutions in International Economic Law
Gary Clyde Hufbauer and Euijin Jung
2.66 Targeted Sanctions in International Economic Law
Marcos Tourinho
2.67 Unilateral Sanctions in International Economic Law
Henri Culot
2.68 Reconciling Trade Sanctions and Awards in Commercial Arbitration
Shaheeza Lalani and Mansur Pour Rafsendjani
PART III – Main Regulatory Areas
A. Market Access: Customs Regulation
3.1 Harmonised System and Schedules of Concession
Davide Rovetta
3.2 Modes of Multilateral Tariff Negotiations
Claudio Dordi
3.3 Impact of Free Trade Agreements and Customs Unions
Claudio Dordi
3.4 The International Law of Customs: Customs Valuation
Davide Rovetta and Laura Carola Beretta
3.5 The International Law of Customs: Rules of Origin (RoO)
Davide Rovetta and Laura Carola Beretta
3.6 The International Law of Customs: Trade Facilitation
Davide Rovetta and Laura Carola Beretta
3.7 The International Law of Customs: Preshipment Inspection
Davide Rovetta and Laura Carola Beretta
3.8 Taxation and Border Tax Adjustment
Claudio Dordi
B. Market Access: Quantitative Restrictions in Goods and Services
3.9 Quotas and Import Licensing
Ilaria Espa
3.10 Voluntary Export Restraints (VERs) and Orderly Marketing Arrangements (OMAs)
Meredith Kolsky Lewis
3.11 Export Restrictions
Ilaria Espa
3.12 Quantitative Restrictions in Services
Panagiotis Delimatsis
3.13 Counterfeiting and Piracy
Bryan Mercurio
3.14 Exhaustion of Rights and Parallel Importation in Intellectual Property
Jayashree Watal
3.15 The Impact of Preferential Trade Agreements
Frederick M Abbott
3.16 Investment Barriers-to-Entry
Wolfgang Alschner
C Trade Remedies and Countervailing Duties
3.17 Rules on Safeguard Measures
Fernando Piérola and Nathalie Diaz
3.18 Rules on Anti-Dumping Measures
James D Nedumpara
3.19 Rules on Subsidies
Luca Rubini
3.20 Anti-Dumping and Preferential Trade Agreements
Gary Horlick and Margaret J Spicer
Part III Section II Domestic Regulation (Behind the Borders)
A. Impact of Domestic Regulation on Trade in Goods, Services and on Investment
3.21 Rules Relating to Goods
Thomas Cottier
3.22 Rules on Domestic Regulation Relating to Services
Panagiotis Delimatsis
3.23 Rules Relating to Intellectual Property
Thomas Cottier
3.24 Rules Relating to Investment
Peter Muchlinski
3.25 The Impact of Labour Standards
Franziska Humbert
B. Harmonization, Equivalence and Mutual Recognition
3.26 Regulatory Barriers to Trade: Regulations and Standards
Arthur E Appleton
3.27 Regulatory Barriers to Trade: Private Standards
Philipp Aerni
3.28 Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
Joanne Scott and Lukasz Gruszczynski
3.29 Impact of Preferential Trade Agreements on Regulation and Standards
Charlotte Sieber-Gasser
3.30 Harmonization and Mutual Recognition in Services: GATS (Article VII)
Charlotte Sieber-Gasser
PART III Section III Trades in Services and Specific SectorsA. WTO Commitments
3.31 Trade in Services in the WTO – General Rules
Panagiotis Delimatsis
3.32 Trade in Services in the WTO – Specific Commitments
Panagiotis Delimatsis
B. Preferential Trade in Services Agreements
3.33 Trade in Services: Preferential Trade Agreements
Charlotte Sieber-Gasser
3.34 The Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA)
Pierre Sauvé
C. Specific Sectors
3.35 Business Services
Dale Honeck
3.36 Communication Services
Mira Burri
3.37 Distribution Services
Joscelyn Magdeleine
3.38 Educational Services
Antoni Verger and Xavier Bonal
3.39 Environmental Services
Mireille Cossy
3.40 Energy Services
Olga Nartova
3.41 Financial Services
Krista Nadakavukaren Schefer
3.42 Health Services
Anna Lanoszka
3.43 Recreation, Cultural and Sporting Services
Véronique Guèvremont
3.44 Air Transport Services
Antonia Carzaniga
3.45 Maritime Transport Services
Antonia Carzaniga
3.46 Land Transport Services
Antonia Carzaniga
PART III SECTION IV Government Procurement
A. The Government Procurement Agreement (GPA)
3.47 Thresholds and Non-Discrimination under the GPA
Mintewab Gebre Woldesenbet
3.48 Procedures under the GPA
Robert D Anderson and Caroline Müller
3.49 The 2012 Revision of the WTO Government Procurement Agreement (GPA)
Marc Steiner
B. Government Procurement in Preferential Trade Agreements
3.50 Government Procurement in Preferential Trade Agreements
Maria Anna Corvaglia
PART III SECTION V Sectorial Agreements
3.51 The WTO Agreements on Agriculture (AoA)
Christian Häberli
3.52 The Decision on LLDCs and Food Importing Developing Countries (NFIDC)
Christian Häberli
3.53 The Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft
Luca Rubini
PART III SECTION VI Competition Law and Policy
3.54 Relationship of Competition Law to Trade and Investment Rules
Robert T Anderson and Anna Caroline Muller
3.55 Protection of Unfair Competition and of Consumers
Thomas Cottier
3.56 Anti-Trust Rules
Marek Martyniszyn
3.57 Anti-Trust Rules in Domestic Jurisdiction
Thomas Cottier
3.58 International Competition Network (ICN)
Mitsuo Matsushita
3.59 The Role of the WTO in Competition Policy
Mitsuo Matsushita
3.60 Impact of Preferential Trade Agreements on Competition Law and Policy
Robert D Anderson and Anna Caroline Müller
3.61 The Role of the OECD in Competition Policy
Robert D Anderson and Nivedita Sen
3.62 The Role of UNCTAD in Competition Law and Policy
Marek Martyniszyn
3.63 Anti-trust, Human Rights and Development
Marek Martyniszyn
A. Trade, Investment and Migration
3.64 A Legacy of Fragmentation in Migration, Trade and Investment Law
Idil Atak and François Crépeau
3.65 International Fora on Cooperation in Migration
Elisa Fornalé
B. Mode 4 Commitments
3.66 Mode 4 Commitments in GATS
Charlotte Sieber-Gasser
3.67 Mode 4 Commitments in PTAs
Charlotte Sieber-Gasser
3.68 Readmission and Cooperation Agreements
Rosa Maria Losada
PART III SECTION VIII Tax Law as an Issue of International Economic Law
3.69 The Importance of Tax in International Economic Law
Allison Christians
3.70 National Sovereignty and Taxation
Wolfgang Schön
3.71 Jurisdiction and Impact of National TreatmentGiedre Lideikyte-Huber1199III.72Tax Evasion and Mutual AssistanceLynne Oats and Angharad Miller
PART III SECTION IX The Protection of Property
A. Property Rights
3.73 Property Rights, Legal Security and Development
Thomas Cottier
B. Intellectual Property Protection
3.74 Goals, Principles and Minimum Standards of Protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs)
Frederick M Abbott
3.75 The Impact of Preferential Trade Agreements on IPR Protection
Bryan Mercurio
3.76 Relation of IPRs to Trade, Investment and Anti-Trust Rules
Beatriz Conde Gallego and Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan
3.77 Fair Use and Compulsory Licensing
Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan
3.78 Specific Concerns of Developing Countries in Intellectual Property Rights
Carlos M Correa
3.79 Toward Ceilings and Graduation of IP obligations
Henning Grosse Ruse-Khan
C. Investment Protection
3.80 Coverage in Investment Protection
Andrew Mitchell and Jacky Mandelbaum
3.81 Right to Use and Direct Expropriation
Noah Rubins
3.82 Indirect Expropriation
Diego Brian Gosis
PART III SECTION X Monetary and Financial Regulation
A. Law and Economics in Monetary Affairs
3.83 Allocation of Powers and Jurisdiction in Monetary Law
Rosa Maria Lastra
3.84 The Role of Law in Monetary Policies
Rosa Maria Lastra
B. Monetary Policies and International Economic Law
3.85 The role of the International Monetary Fund
R Michael Gadbaw
3.86 The Role of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in Monetary Affairs
R Michael Gadbaw
C. Financial Regulation
3.87 International Standards
Eva Hüpkes
3.88 Banking Core Principles
Xavier-Yves Zanota
3.89 Insurance Core Principles
Rekha Oleschak-Pillai
3.90 Standards for Market Actors
Rashid Bahar
PART IV : Cross-Cutting Challenges
PART IV SECTION I Integrating Domestic and International Economic Law
4.1 Multi-Level Governance and Public Goods
Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann
4.2 The Role of Vertically Shared Principles
Thomas Cottier
4.3 The Role of Lawyers, Courts and Legal Education
Thomas Cottier
4.4 Graduation of Rights and Obligations in Future Agreements: Towards Progressive Regulation
Thomas Cottier
PART IV SECTION II International Economic Law and the Private Sector
4.5 Corporations’ Responsibility in International Law
Karin Buhmann
4.6 Corporate Codes of Conduct
Karin Buhmann
4.7 Role of Lobbies and Associations
Cristián Rodriguez Chiffelle and Nicole Graugnard
4.8 Delegated Regulations: Normalization
Simon Brinsmead
Part IV SECTION III Global Value Chains
4.9 Linking Goods and Services in the Value Chain
Marina Foltea
4.10 Regulatory Implications and Challenges of Global Value Chains
Marina Foltea
PART IV SECTION IV Combating Poverty
4.11 Aid for Trade Initiative
Jean-Jacques Hallaert
4.12 Technology Transfer
Jeffery Atik
4.13 IMF Facilities
Annamaria Viterbo
4.14 Microfinance
Beatriz Armendáriz
4.15 Debt Relief
Karen Halverson Cross
4.16 Sovereign Debt
Giuseppe Bianco
4.17 Stimulating the Private Sector
Philippe Aerni
PART IV SECTION V International Economic Law and Sustainable Development
4.18 The Principles of Precaution and Sustainability
Laurence Boisson de Chazournes and Makane Mbengue
4.19 The Role of Environmental Processes and Production Methods
Kateryna Holzer
4.20 Climate Change Mitigation and Renewable Energy
Tetyana Payosova
4.21 Soil as a Common Concern: Toward Disciplines on Sustainable Land Management
Thomas Cottier and Elisabeth Bürgi
4.22 Environmental Taxes
Alice Pirlot
4.23 New Disciplines on Energy Law
Ilaria Espa
4.24Trade, Environment and the Law of the Sea
Judith Wehrli
4.25 Integrating Trade, Investment and Climate Change
Rodrigo Polanco
PART IV SECTION VI International Economic Law and Human Rights
4.26 Property Rights Beyond Foreign Direct Investment
Thomas Cottier and Elisabeth Bürgi
4.27 Land Grabbing, Human Rights and Land Registration Protection
Tomas Cottier and Elisabeth Bürgi
4.28 Right to WaterMariel Dimsey
4.29 Trade in Bulk WaterFitzgerald Temmerman
4.30 Right to Water: Trade in Virtual Water and Product Standards
Fitzgerald Temmerman
4.31 Right to Electricity
Karolis Gudas
4.32 Right to Health
Tania Voon
4.33 Right to Access to Medicines
Frederick M Abbott
4.34 Right to Adequate Food
Bernard O’Connor
4.35 Rights of Women
Barnali Choudhury
4.36 Rights of Persons with Disabilities
Caroline Hess-Klein
4.37 Rights of Indigenous Peoples
Marie Wilke