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Preventing Identity Crime: Identity Theft and Identity Fraud

ISBN13: 9789004395961
Published: April 2020
Publisher: Brill Nijhoff
Country of Publication: The Netherlands
Format: Hardback
Price: Price on Application

Identity crime, which encompasses both identity theft and identity fraud, is one of the fastest growing crimes around the world, yet it lacks its own identity: there is no universally accepted definition, little understanding of what the crime is or should be, and no legal framework placing the crime into a coherent and effective grouping of criminal sanctions. In this book, Dr. Syed Ahmed addresses and proposes solutions for resolving these issues and tackles head-on the various facets of what is needed to deal with Identity Crime. A comprehensive and an exhaustive study of different types of Identity Crime is conducted and practical recommendations for preventing and minimizing the impact of identity crime is presented for all to consider.

Criminal Law, International Criminal Law
List of Illustrations
1. The Problem of Identity Crime
2. What is Identity?
2.1 When We Say “Identity,” What Do We Mean?
2.2 Identity – Dictionary Definitions
2.3 Identity Properties and Attributes
2.4 Identity – the Psychological View
2.5 Identity – the Philosophical View
2.6 Identity – the Legal View
2.7 Means of Verifying Legal Identity
2.8 Digital Identity
2.9 Conclusion
3. Identity Crime Framework and Model: Five Components of Identity Crime and the Different Illegal Methods of Acquiring and Using Identity Information and Documents
3.1 Clarification of Terms: Identity Theft, Identity Fraud, and Identity Crime
3.2 Goal of Identity Crimes
3.3 The Identity Crime Framework
3.4 Identity Crime Framework
3.5 Five Components of Identity Crime Model
3.6 Techniques and Strategies Used for Illegal Acquisition
3.7 Producing and Manipulating Identity Information and Documents
3.8 Transfer – Identity Trafficking
3.9 Possession
3.10 Use – Criminals’ Goals and the Kinds of Crimes They Commit When Using Acquired Information or Documents
3.11 Conclusion
4. Threat Agents and the Impact of Identity Crime
4.1 Identity Crime Threat Assessment Model and Threat Agent Identification and Analysis
4.2 The Impact of Identity Crime
4.3 Costs of Identity Crime by Use
4.4 Conclusion
5. International Trends in Addressing Identity Crime
5.1 International Organizations
5.2 Conclusion
6. Identity Crime Legislation in the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom
Part A: United States Statutes
6A.1 Introduction
6A.2 Identity-Crime-Specific Statutes
6A.3 Identity-Crime-Related Statutes
6A.4 Civil Statutes to Prevent Identity Crimes and Recover Identity
6A.5 State Statutes
Part B: Canadian Statutes
6B.1 Introduction
6B.2 Analysis of Canada’s Identity Crime Statutes and Related Statutes
6B.3 Criminal Code
6B.4 Privacy Act
6B.5 Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act
6B.6 Changes Recommended by Concerned Organizations
Part C: Australia
6C.1 Introduction
6C.2 National Identity Security Strategy
6C.3 Federal System – State and Territorial Laws
6C.4 Australian Criminal Code
6C.5 Financial Transaction Reports Act 1988
6C.6 Travel Document Offenses
6C.7 Privacy Act 1988
6C.8 South Australia’s Identity Crime Provisions
6C.9 Queensland’s Identity Crime Provisions
6C.10 New South Wales’ Crimes Act 1900
6C.11 Tasmania’s Computer Fraud Statute
Part D: United Kingdom Statutes
6D.1 Introduction
6D.2 Analysis of the U.K.’s Identity-Crime-Related Statutes
6D.3 Identity Cards Act 2006
6D.4 Fraud Act 2006
6D.5 Theft Act 1968
6D.6 Computer Misuse Act 1990
6D.7 Forgery and Counterfeiting Act 1981
6D.8 Data Protection Act 1998
6D.9 Conclusion
7. Identity Crime Prevention and Impact Minimization Strategy
7.1 Proposed Approaches to Identity Crime Prevention
7.2 Developing an International Identity Crime Treaty
7.3 Developing Identity Information and Documents with Real Time Authentication and Verification
7.4 Authentication
7.5 Business Policies
7.6 Consumer Education
7.7 Consumer Actions
7.8 Foundation Documents
7.9 Medical Identity Crime Prevention
7.10 Victim Cooperation
7.11 Offenders
7.12 Law Enforcement Policies
7.13 Government Policies
7.14 Information Sharing
7.15 International Collaboration and Efforts
7.16 Public- Private Partnerships
7.17 Data Protection through Technology
7.18 Training Programs and Initiatives
7.19 Meeting the Challenges of Identity Fraud Prevention
7.20 Evaluating Identity Crime Prevention and Impact Minimization Techniques
7.21 Conclusion
7.22 Appendix: Table of Identity Crime Prevention and Impact Minimization Techniques
8. Privacy, Anonymity, and Identity Crime
8.1 The Identity Crime Privacy Model
8.2 Fair Information Practices (fip s)
8.3 Privacy Taxonomies
8.4 Personally Identifiable Information (pii)
8.5 Data Mining
8.6 Privacy-Enhancing Technologies (pet s)
8.7 Anonymity
8.8 Anonymization
8.9 Data Loss and Data Loss Prevention (dlp)
8.10 The Identity Crime Prevention Model and Privacy by Design
8.11 Conclusion
9. Convention on Identity Crime
9.1 Preamble
9.2 Chapter i – Use of Terms
9.3 Chapter ii – Measures To Be Taken at the National Level
9.4 Chapter iii – International Cooperation
9.5 Chapter iv – Final Provisions
10. Conclusion
Appendix 1: Table of Cases
Appendix 2: Table of Statutes