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This book explores the critical questions of how and why criminal justice policies emerge, and examines how criminal justice policy is understood and applied by practitioners. It questions whether diversity in implementation implies policy failure or a sign of healthy activism among local practitioners. The contributors reflect upon policy change in historical periods - including criminal justice under Thatcher, community service in the 1970s, and youth justice in the 1980s - specific regions of the United Kingdom, and contentious contemporary issues - including the 'transformation' of rehabilitation, payment by results, multi-agency work on prolific offenders, and the reform of youth courts. The contributors in this volume also analyse the management of criminal justice policy implementation, particularly surveying managerialism in the courts, the consistency and fairness in out-of-court disposals, and prison policy. Important critiques of long-standing policy issues are also offered with a focus upon anti-social behaviour, 'troubled families', and the role of the 'community' in criminal justice. With contributions from leading researchers, practitioners and policymakers in criminology and criminal justice, this book is essential reading for those interested in the management of change in criminal justice.