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The radical changes taking place in the international scene during the late 1980s have presented the European Communities with important new challenges. The twelve member States agreed that the only way to respond effectively to this new situation was to speed up the European integration process, and in December 1990 two Intergovernmental Conferences were inaugurated, focusing respectively on the development of an Economic and Monetary Union and a Political Union. It was the difficult task of the Luxembourg and Dutch Presidencies to channel the often very diverging positions of the different actors in the process into the coherent set of amendments to the Treaties forming the European Communities.;This publication examines the positions which the different Member States, the Commission and the European Parliament have been defending in the Intergovernmental Conference on Political Union and more particularly with regard to one of the most sensitive topics under discussion, namely the development of a Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). The introduction places the debate on the development of a Political Union and a CFSP in an historical perspective and gives an overview of the progression of the negotiations. The concluding chapter presents a general framework for better understanding of the course and results of the negotiations, and a critical evaluation of the outcome. The annexes reproduce the main proposals on the development of a CFSP submitted to the Conference.