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The author applies herself to the legal and pragmatic aspects of control surrounding MNE operations. The primary focus is on legal and administrative techniques and measures practised by host states to control - transparently or less so - foreign MNE activity within their territories, or even extraterritorially when effects are felt within national boundaries. The primary geographic focus is the six most investment-intensive industrialized states (namely, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the US and the UK).;At the same time an important message of the present study is precisely the implications for the developing countries as well as for the emerging market economies of central and eastern Europe - and even Asian nations besides Japan, because it is the sharing of this very ""experience of years"" that can best serve to facilitate a fuller participation on the part of the up-and-coming economies in the same global market place.;Among the most important topics dealt with are discretionary legislation and other techniques (for instance, ""creeping expropriation"") of indirect control by the host state, outside of the recognizable investment-specific legislation; control through merger legislation and practice under national and supranational competition law and policy, and present prospects for an international antitrust/competition regime; jurisdictional issues, particularly in the competition/antitrust law arena, with an emphasis on the question of extraterritoriality and conflicts of jurisdiction, and the role of international comity; and the background and current environment for an international investment agreement. The ultimate objective is to provide a sound basis for assessing the elaboration of some form of international instrument or framework for the foreign direct investment operations of the multinational enterprise of the 21st century.