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This work presents an analysis and commentary on the 1992 United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity, which was opened for signature following the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development. This Convention was an international treaty which addressed all aspects of biodiversity, ranging from the conservation of biological diversity and sustainable use of biological resources, to access to biotechnology and the safety of activities related to modified living organisms. The work extends beyond the ambit of the Convention itself to examine the conservation of biodiversity in international law, including measures for the protection of the terrestrial, marine and Antarctic environment and particular features relating to sustainable use of biological resources, ex-situ conservation and plant genetic resources. It further analyzes the controversial issue of intellectual property rights, the problems of implementation in the EU, differences between developing and developed states, and the role of indigenous people.;This work was written by members of the Committee on Environmental Law of the British branch of the International Law Association, following an earlier study of International Law and Global Climate Change (Graham & Trotman, 1991).