1. Crime, Law, and Criminal Justice. Images of Crime and Justice in America. What is Crime and Who is the Criminal? Social Control and Criminal Law. What is Criminal Justice? Criminal Justice Themes Emphasized in this Text.
2. Getting a Line on Crime and Justice in America. The Production of Information on Crime. Sources of Information on Crime and Criminals. Sources of Information on the Criminal Justice System.
3. Public Policy and Theories of Crime. Theories of Crime and Criminality. Locating the Causes of Crime and Criminality. Crime as an Event. Ideology and Public Policy. The Twin Goals of Crime Policy: Order and Justice.
4. Overview of the Adult and Juvenile Justice Systems. The Criminal Justice System in the United States. Decision Stages in the Criminal Justice System. The Juvenile Justice System. II. THE POLICE: FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE AGAINST CRIME.
5. History, Organization, and Functions of Police. A Brief History of Policing. Federal Policing: Growth and Current Status. State and Local Police Agencies. Relations Between Federal, State, and Local Police. Rural Policing. Private Policing. The Functions of Modern Policing.
6. Culture and Styles of Policing. The Recruitment of Police Officers. Women and Minorities in Police Work. The Police Perspective. Varieties of Police Behaviors. Proactive Policing: A Modern Trend.
7. The Exercise of Discretion. Decisions to Act Unofficially or To Do Nothing. Making Arrests. Interrogating Criminal Suspects. Crime Victims and the Exercise of Discretion. Police and Deadly Force: Shoot or Dont Shoot? 8. Six Crime Challenges for Police Today. Urban Gangs. Policing the Drug Problem. Organized Crime and the Police. Hate Crimes, Terrorism and the Police. The Challenge of Domestic Violence.
9. The Police and the Law. Constitutional Protections. The Legal Boundaries of Police Action. The Law of Arrests. The Dark Side of Policing: Corruption and Brutality. III. THE CRIMINAL COURTS: THE JUDICIAL PROCESS IN ACTION.
10. The Criminal Lawyers. An Overview of Lawyering in America. The Criminal Attorney and the Legal Profession. Representing the State: The Prosecutor. Representing the Criminal Defendant.
11. Pre-Trial Decisions in the Judicial Process. Pre-Trial Release. The Prosecution of Criminal Suspects. Plea Bargaining and the Decision to Plead Guilty.
12. The Courts and the Criminal Trial. The Criminal Courts. Criminal Trials and the Jury System. The Attorneys Present their Evidence. Changes in the Criminal Court.
13. Sentencing the Criminal Offender. The Concept of Punishment. Sentencing the Criminal Offender. Sentencing Disparities. Curbing Sentencing Discrepancies. Intermediate Sentences: Alternatives to Prison. Sentencing and the Crime Victim. IV. PUNISHMENT AND CORRECTIONS: DEALING WITH THE CRIMINAL OFFENDER.
14. Capital Punishment. Exile Penalties. Capital Punishment. The Modern Exe